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New process yields cleaner diesel, CANMET 95
 
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Technical and economic aspects of manufacturing cetane-enhanced diesel fuel from canola oil

A. Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada
J. Monnier, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada
M. Stumborg, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, Canada
E. Hogan, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada

ABSTRACT. Canada has developed a novel hydroprocessing technology for the conversion of biomass oil into cetane-enhanced diesel fuel. It is based on the catalytic treatment of biomass oils, including canola oil, under specific operating conditions. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This “green” diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel. The feedstock for this novel technology can be virtually any vegetable and tree-derived oil. It is well known that vegetable oils can be esterified with methanol (or ethanol) into a diesel additive or replacement. In many cases, however, engine modifications are required to limit nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions or allow cold-weather use of the diesel-ester blend (bio-diesel). The commercial prospects of the ester-based bio-diesel may be further limited because of the high processing cost and lack of acceptance of the fuel by North American engine manufacturers. Acceptable ester-based bio-diesel standards are expected in the near future, with U.S. standards agencies only beginning to address the need for a consensus-based fuel standard. Canada has not yet begun deliberations on this matter. This situation raises serious concerns for potential bio-diesel users because of the lack of warranty coverage for engines using bio-diesel. Under prevailing Canadian economic conditions, the use of canola oil for conversion to fuel products would be financially attractive if it is blended with lower-price biomass feedstock such as tall oil and waste frying oil, and processed with the Canadian hydroprocessing technology. (AK11581B)

Proc. SCDC Bio-Oil Symposium, Saskatoon, Canada, March, 1994

 

Chemical composition of tall oil-based cetane enhancer for diesel fuels

Y. Feng and A. Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada
J. Monnier, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada

ABSTRACT. Tall oil is a co-product of the manufacture of kraft softwood pulp. The principal constituents of tall oil are unsaturated C18 fatty acids, resin acids and unsaponifiables such as diterpenic alcohols/aldehydes. Tall oil has been shown to be economical feedstock for the manufacture of cetane enhancer for diesel fuels, using the proprietary CANMET (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) technology.

Under a joint R&D project between Arbokem Inc./BC Chemical Ltd. And CANMET, pilot plant tests were conducted recently at the CANMET Energy Research Laboratories in Ottawa. The results showed that tall oil could be hydroprocessed efficiently to yield a valuable fuel blending agent. When this product was mixed with conventional diesel fuel, the cetane number of the diesel fuel increased linearly with the addition of the product. Chemical analysis including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has confirmed high conversion of tall oil components into straight-chain alkanes. A small amount of cyclic hydrocarbons and sulphur components were present in the tall oil-based diesel enhancer. Preliminary results indicate that this type of cetane enhancer would provide additional technical benefits. The low aromatics content of the tall oil-based cetane enhancer would significantly reduce aromatics in the final diesel fuel blend. Diesel engines operating on such fuel blends would have lower propensity to form particulates and NOx.

Proc. First Biomass Conference of the Americas, Burlington, Vermont, USA, August, 1993. pp. 863-875.

 

Tall oil-based cetane enhancer for diesel fuel

A. Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. Arbokem Inc. of Vancouver has recently acquired the exclusive worldwide rights from Natural Resources Canada to manufacture and market a cetane enhancer. The patented technology was developed by the Saskatchewan Research Council under the sponsorship of Natural Resources Canada. It is based on the catalytical hydrotreatment of biomass oils. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This “green” diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of viscosity, pour point, cloud point, corrosivity, etc. of the basic diesel fuel. The feedstock for this novel technology can be any biomass oils such as tall oil, palm oil, coconut oil, aspen oil and birch oil. Canadian tall oil is probably the most practical feedstock for the manufacture of cetane enhancers for low-quality diesel fuel. Pilot plant testing of this process for the conversion of tall oil into cetane enhancers for diesel fuel is presently in progress. (AK10026A)

Preprints 1993 CPPA Technical Section Annual Meeting, Montreal, Quebec, January, 1993. pp. A313-A318

 

ARBO-TANE™, The green diesel fuel

A. Wong, Arbokem Inc., Vancouver, Canada

ABSTRACT. Tall oil has been discovered to be a very practical feedstock for the green diesel technology. Extensive laboratory tests have shown that the novel tall oil-based additive is effective in improving the performance of low-quality diesel fuels and enhancing the performance of conventional diesel fuels.

Naval Stores Review, (July/August, 1991). pp. 14-15.

 
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